The government of Iran is "Islamic Republic" which was founded after Islamic Revolution in 1979. In accordance with the constitution, the President, members of Islamic consultative Assembly (Parliament), and members of different councils who are directly elected by people must administer the country. The threefold powers in the Islamic Republic of Iran are legislative, executive, and judiciary that are independent but coordinated by the President and supervision of the leader.
The number of Islamic Consultative Assembly (ICA) representatives is 270 who are elected for a period of 4 years. All approvals of ICA must be ratified by The Guardian Council for adaptation of these approvals with Islamic religious laws.
Executive power is under supervision of the president who is directly elected by the people for a duration of four years.
Judiciary power is supportive of individuals as well as social rights of the nation. The highest body in judiciary power is Judicial High Council. The members of this council are heads of Supreme Court, attorney general, and three clergymen judges who are elected for 5 years.
Political and Administrative Divisions
According to the latest divisions of the country, Iran is divided into 28
provinces, 252 townships, and 680 districts. Each province is administered by a governor-general, each township by a governor and each district by a lieutenant governor. Covering an area of 313,000 square kilometers, Khorasan province is the largest province of Iran and the smallest ones, having an area of less than 15,000 square kilometers, are Gilan, Chahar Mahal Bakhtiari, Kohgilooyeh and Boirahmad, Gorgan, Qazvin, and Qum.
Travel and Transportation
The best means for travel to Iran is airplane. The major international airlines, especially Iran Air (Homa), have regular flights between Tehran and large cities of the world. Almost all international airlines have independent branch offices in Tehran.
Travel to Iran is possible by other means of transportation such as car through neighboring countries such as Turkey, Iraq, Turkmenistan, Azarbaijan, Armenia, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The main roads, which connect Iran to neighboring countries, are as follows:
- Iran-Turkey in Bazargan border city, north-west of Iran;
- Zahedan-Mirjaveh in the Iran-Pakistan border, south-east of Iran;
- Taybad-Harat in the Iran-Afghanistan border, east of Iran;
- Astara-Jolfa in the Iran-Azarbaijan border, north of Iran;
- Ghasre'shirin-Khosravi in the Iran-Iraq border, west of Iran.
Moreover, Iran is connected to northern countries by waterways through northern ports located on the coasts of the Caspian Sea as well as littoral states of the Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman and the Indian Ocean through southern ports.
There are asphalt connecting roads between major cities with suitable quality. The driving system in Iran is based on international driving regulations and through right lane. So many of roads in Iran are mountainous with eye-catching views. There are international traffic signs in all main roads while they are controlled by highway patrols.
The capital cities of all provinces and other major cities are linked together through a network of main roads. There are also asphalt access roads among other cities of a province. The main transit roads have northwest-southeast or west-east directions and connect Iran-Turkey border to Iran-Pakistan border as well as northern countries to inside of Iran. The up-to-date road maps of Iran can be easily obtained through all bookshops, tourism offices, and newspaper stands.
In mountainous roads of Iran, there is speed limitation, but most of roads in Iran are relatively safe. There is no need for taking spare gasoline due to the existence of enough gas stations along all roads specially the main ones. The price of gasoline (normal and unleaded) and gas oil is very low in Iran compared to other countries.
Travel by bus is very cheap in Iran due to low price of gas oil. In addition, there are different bus companies with well-equipped and comfortable buses and various classifications to all around Iran. There are also other facilities for travel like minibuses, rent a car agencies, etc., most of them centered in the bus terminals of the cities. The Islamic Republic of Iran Railroad, like other countries in the world, has regular passenger train services to some major cities like Tabriz, Meshed, Gorgan, Isfahan, Kerman, yazd), Ahwaz, and Khoramshahr.
There are regular flights to all major cities as well as to small ones by the Islamic Republic of Iran Airline (Homa), Iran Air Tour, SAHA, Aseman Airline, Bon Air, Mahan Air, Kish Air, and Caspian Air. Development of the airports of the country in last years made possible the wide and suitable air connections of the cities. The fare of domestic flights is very cheap compared with other countries.